Armin Schneider, Matthew J. Huentelman, Joachim Kremerskothen, Kerstin Duning, Robert Spoelgen, Karoly Nikolich (2010)
KIBRA: A new gateway to learning and memory?
Exp Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
C. Pitzer, S. Klussmann, C. Kruger, E. Letellier, C. Plaas, T. Dittgen, F. Kirsch, B. Stieltjes, D. Weber, R. Laage, A. Martin-Villalba and A. Schneider
The hematopoietic factor granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves outcome in experimental spinal cord injury
Show abstract. J. Neurochem. (2010) 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06659.x Abstract Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a potent hematopoietic factor that drives differentiation of neutrophilic granulocytes. We have recently shown that G-CSF also acts as a neuronal growth factor, protects neurons in vitro and in vivo, and has regenerative potential in various neurological disease models. Spinal cord injury (SCI) following trauma or secondary to skeletal instability is a terrible condition with no effective therapies available at present. In this study, we show that the G-CSF receptor is up-regulated upon experimental SCI and that G-CSF improves functional outcome in a partial dissection model of SCI. G-CSF significantly decreases apoptosis in an experimental partial spinal transsection model in the mouse and increases expression of the anti-apoptotic G-CSF target gene Bcl-X(L). In vitro, G-CSF enhances neurite outgrowth and branching capacity of hippocampal neurons. In vivo, G-CSF treatment results in improved functional connectivity of the injured spinal cord as measured by Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI. G-CSF also increased length of the dorsal corticospinal tract and density of serotonergic fibers cranial to the lesion center. Mice treated systemically with G-CSF as well as transgenic mice over-expressing G-CSF in the CNS exhibit a strong improvement in functional outcome as measured by the BBB score and gridwalk analysis. We show that G-CSF improves outcome after experimental SCI by counteracting apoptosis, and enhancing connectivity in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that G-CSF constitutes a promising and feasible new therapy option for SCI.
A. Henriques, C. Pitzer, L. Dupuis and A. Schneider
G-CSF protects motoneurons against axotomy-induced apoptotic death in neonatal mice
BMC Neurosci; 11: 25
Show abstract. BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor essential for generation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Apart from this hematopoietic function, we have recently uncovered potent neuroprotective and regenerative properties of G-CSF in the central nervous system (CNS). The G-CSF receptor and G-CSF itself are expressed in alpha motoneurons, G-CSF protects motoneurons, and improves outcome in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In vitro, G-CSF acts anti-apoptotically on motoneuronal cells. Due to the pleiotrophic effects of G-CSF and the complexity of the SOD1 transgenic ALS models it was however not possible to clearly distinguish between directly mediated anti-apoptotic and indirectly protective effects on motoneurons. Here we studied whether G-CSF is able to protect motoneurons from purely apoptotic cell death induced by a monocausal paradigm, neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy. RESULTS: We performed sciatic nerve axotomy in neonatal mice overexpressing G-CSF in the CNS and found that G-CSF transgenic mice displayed significantly higher numbers of surviving lumbar motoneurons 4 days following axotomy than their littermate controls. Also, surviving motoneurons in G-CSF overexpressing animals were larger, suggesting additional trophic effects of this growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: In this model of pure apoptotic cell death the protective effects of G-CSF indicate direct actions of G-CSF on motoneurons in vivo. This shows that G-CSF exerts potent anti-apoptotic activities towards motoneurons in vivo and suggests that the protection offered by G-CSF in ALS mouse models is due to its direct neuroprotective activity.
J. K. Strecker, S. Sevimli, M. Schilling, R. Klocke, S. Nikol, A. Schneider and W. R. Schabitz (2009)
Effects of G-CSF treatment on neutrophil mobilization and neurological outcome after transient focal ischemia
Show abstract. Several recent studies demonstrated beneficial effects of G-CSF treatment (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) in various CNS disease. Possible mechanisms underlying this activity are neuroprotection, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis and anti-inflammation. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of G-CSF administration in experimental stroke by determining infarct volume and neurological score in wildtype, G-CSF-deficient and G-CSF-treated G-CSF-deficient mice. Besides, cerebral ischemia is followed by an upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules which promote leukocyte recruitment to the injured area. In combination with G-CSF-induced leukocytosis, increased peripheral neutrophils could aggregate within microvasculature and additionally impair blood perfusion of the ischemic tissue. Therefore, we analyzed the neutrophil counts in both vessel and tissue compartment 2 and 5 days post-stroke by immunohistochemistry. Here we show that G-CSF deficiency leads to increased infarct volumes, whereas G-CSF substitution revokes detrimental effects by reducing lesion size and enhancing neurological outcome compared to untreated animals. Administration of G-CSF is accompanied by significant increase of circulating neutrophils 2 days post-ischemia but leukocytosis is restricted to the vessel compartment and has no deleterious effect on lesion formation and functional recovery. These observations are likely to be important for therapeutic targeting of G-CSF-mediated neuroprotection in stroke.
S. Sevimli, K. Diederich, J. K. Strecker, M. Schilling, R. Klocke, S. Nikol, F. Kirsch, A. Schneider and W. R. Schabitz (2009)
Endogenous brain protection by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor after ischemic stroke
Exp Neurol; 217: 2, 328-35
Show abstract. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated beneficial effects of the hematopoietic factor G-CSF in experimental stroke. A conclusive demonstration of this effect in G-CSF deficient mice is, however, lacking. We therefore investigated the effect of G-CSF deficiency on infarct volumes, functional recovery, mRNA and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) after stroke. Furthermore we tested the efficacy of G-CSF substitution in G-CSF deficient animals to prevent the potential consequences of G-CSF deficiency. In the present study experimental stroke was induced in female non-treated wildtype (wt), G-CSF deficient mice and G-CSF substituted G-CSF deficient mice followed by assessment of infarct volumes, neurological outcome and sensorimotor function. In addition, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR of the peri-ischemic area were performed. G-CSF deficient mice showed increased infarct volumes, whereas G-CSF substituted mice had a remarkable reduction in lesion size compared to wt mice. These findings are accompanied by an improvement in neurological and sensorimotor function. G-CSF deficiency resulted in an upregulation of MMP-9 in the direct peri-ischemic tissue. Treatment with G-CSF suppressed the upregulation of MMP-9. Taken together, G-CSF deficiency clearly resulted in enlarged infarct volumes, and worsened neurological outcome. G-CSF substitution abolished these negative effects, led to significant reduced lesion volumes, and improved neurological outcome. G-CSF mediated suppression of MMP-9 further demonstrates that endogenous G-CSF plays a significant role in brain protective mechanisms. We have shown for the first time that endogenous G-CSF is required for brain recovery mechanisms after stroke.
D. W. Schelshorn, A. Schneider, W. Kuschinsky, D. Weber, C. Kruger, T. Dittgen, H. F. Burgers, F. Sabouri, N. Gassler, A. Bach and M. H. Maurer (2009)
Expression of hemoglobin in rodent neurons
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 29: 3, 585-95
Show abstract. Hemoglobin is the major protein in red blood cells and transports oxygen from the lungs to oxygen-demanding tissues, like the brain. Mechanisms that facilitate the uptake of oxygen in the vertebrate brain are unknown. In invertebrates, neuronal hemoglobin serves as intracellular storage molecule for oxygen. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry that hemoglobin is specifically expressed in neurons of the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the rodent brain, but not in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The neuronal hemoglobin distribution is distinct from the neuroglobin expression pattern on both cellular and subcellular levels. Probing for low oxygen levels in the tissue, we provide evidence that hemoglobin alpha-positive cells in direct neighborhood with hemoglobin alpha-negative cells display a better oxygenation than their neighbors and can be sharply distinguished from those. Neuronal hemoglobin expression is upregulated by injection or transgenic overexpression of erythropoietin and is accompanied by enhanced brain oxygenation under physiologic and hypoxic conditions. Thus we provide a novel mechanism for the neuroprotective actions of erythropoietin under ischemic-hypoxic conditions. We propose that neuronal hemoglobin expression is connected to facilitated oxygen uptake in neurons, and hemoglobin might serve as oxygen capacitator molecule.
D. A. Ridder, S. Bulashevska, G. V. Chaitanya, P. P. Babu, B. Brors, R. Eils, A. Schneider and M. Schwaninger (2009)
Discovery of transcriptional programs in cerebral ischemia by in silico promoter analysis
Brain Res; 1272: 3-13
Show abstract. In stroke, gene transcription plays a central role in processes such as neuroinflammation and neuroregeneration. To predict new transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in cerebral ischemia, we applied a computational approach combining two kinds of information: the results of a microarray analysis in a mouse model of stroke and in silico detection of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in promoter regions of the genes on the array. By using a discriminative logistic regression model, we identified binding sites significantly associated with the up-regulation of genes. Out of 356 TF binding sites defined in TRANSFAC, we could link 32 to gene up-regulation in cerebral ischemia. These sites bind both TFs with an established and a so far unknown role in cerebral ischemia. To evaluate the results further we investigated whether two TFs, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), are activated as predicted. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that C/EBP beta and VDR translocated to the nucleus in cerebral ischemia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed increased binding of C/EBP beta to the promoter of its target gene saa3. In addition, we found evidence for the up-regulation of VDR in brain samples from human stroke patients. These results confirm the activation of C/EBP beta and VDR in cerebral ischemia. Thus, our in silico analysis may provide additional information on transcriptional regulation in stroke and suggests several novel transcriptional programs for further exploration.
T. Frank, J. C. Schlachetzki, B. Goricke, K. Meuer, G. Rohde, G. P. Dietz, M. Bahr, A. Schneider and J. H. Weishaupt (2009)
Both systemic and local application of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is neuroprotective after retinal ganglion cell axotomy
BMC Neurosci; 10: 49
Show abstract. BACKGROUND: The hematopoietic Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) plays a crucial role in controlling the number of neutrophil progenitor cells. Its function is mediated via the G-CSF receptor, which was recently found to be expressed also in the central nervous system. In addition, G-CSF provided neuroprotection in models of neuronal cell death. Here we used the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axotomy model to compare effects of local and systemic application of neuroprotective molecules. RESULTS: We found that the G-CSF receptor is robustly expressed by RGCs in vivo and in vitro. We thus evaluated G-CSF as a neuroprotectant for RGCs and found a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of G-CSF on axotomized RGCs when given subcutaneously. As stem stell mobilization had previously been discussed as a possible contributor to the neuroprotective effects of G-CSF, we compared the local treatment of RGCs by injection of G-CSF into the vitreous body with systemic delivery by subcutaneous application. Both routes of application reduced retinal ganglion cell death to a comparable extent. Moreover, G-CSF enhanced the survival of immunopurified RGCs in vitro. CONCLUSION: We thus show that G-CSF neuroprotection is at least partially independent of potential systemic effects and provide further evidence that the clinically applicable G-CSF could become a treatment option for both neurodegenerative diseases and glaucoma. Free_PDF
M. Fisher, G. Feuerstein, D. W. Howells, P. D. Hurn, T. A. Kent, S. I. Savitz and E. H. Lo (2009)
Update of the stroke therapy academic industry roundtable preclinical recommendations
Stroke; 40: 6, 2244-50
Show abstract. The initial Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations published in 1999 were intended to improve the quality of preclinical studies of purported acute stroke therapies. Although recognized as reasonable, they have not been closely followed nor rigorously validated. Substantial advances have occurred regarding the appropriate quality and breadth of preclinical testing for candidate acute stroke therapies for better clinical translation. The updated STAIR preclinical recommendations reinforce the previous suggestions that reproducibly defining dose response and time windows with both histological and functional outcomes in multiple animal species with appropriate physiological monitoring is appropriate. The updated STAIR recommendations include: the fundamentals of good scientific inquiry should be followed by eliminating randomization and assessment bias, a priori defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, performing appropriate power and sample size calculations, and disclosing potential conflicts of interest. After initial evaluations in young, healthy male animals, further studies should be performed in females, aged animals, and animals with comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Another consideration is the use of clinically relevant biomarkers in animal studies. Although the recommendations cannot be validated until effective therapies based on them emerge from clinical trials, it is hoped that adherence to them might enhance the chances for success.
K. Diederich, S. Sevimli, H. Dorr, E. Kosters, M. Hoppen, L. Lewejohann, R. Klocke, J. Minnerup, S. Knecht, S. Nikol, N. Sachser, A. Schneider, A. Gorji, C. Sommer and W. R. Schabitz (2009)
The role of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the healthy brain: a characterization of G-CSF-deficient mice
J Neurosci; 29: 37, 11572-81
Show abstract. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that controls proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Although recent studies have begun to explore G-CSF-related mechanisms of action in various disease models, little is known about its function in the healthy brain. In the present study, the effect of G-CSF deficiency on memory formation and motor skills was investigated. The impact of G-CSF deficiency on the structural integrity of the hippocampus was evaluated by analyzing the generation of doublecortin-expressing cells, the amount of bromodeoxyurine-labeled cells, the dendritic complexity in hippocampal neurons, the binding densities of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors and the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). G-CSF deficiency caused a disruption in memory formation and in the development of motor skills. These impairments were associated with reduced ligand binding densities of NMDA receptors in hippocampal subfields CA3 and the dentate gyrus. The reduced excitation was potentiated by increased ligand binding densities of GABA(A) receptors resulting in a relative shift in favor of inhibition and impaired behavioral performance. These alterations were accompanied by impaired induction of LTP in the CA1 region. Moreover, G-CSF deficiency led to decreased dendritic complexity in hippocampal neurons in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region. G-CSF deficiency also caused a reduction of neuronal precursor cells in the dentate gyrus. These findings confirm G-CSF as an essential neurotrophic factor, and point to a role in the proliferation, differentiation and functional integration of neural cells necessary for the structural and functional integrity of the hippocampal formation.
K. Diederich, W. R. Schabitz, K. Kuhnert, N. Hellstrom, N. Sachser, A. Schneider, H. G. Kuhn and S. Knecht (2009)
Synergetic effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and cognitive training on spatial learning and survival of newborn hippocampal neurons
PLoS One; 4: 4, e5303
Show abstract. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor known for its role in the proliferation and differentiation of cells of the myeloic lineage. Only recently its significance in the CNS has been uncovered. G-CSF attenuates apoptosis and controls proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. G-CSF activates upstream kinases of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which is thought to facilitate the survival of neuronal precursors and to recruit new neurons into the dentate gyrus. CREB is also essential for spatial long-term memory formation. To assess the role and the potential of this factor on learning and memory-formation we systemically administered G-CSF in rats engaged in spatial learning in an eight-arm radial maze. G-CSF significantly improved spatial learning and increased in combination with cognitive training the survival of newborn neurons in the hippocampus as measured by bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin immunohistochemistry. Additionally, G-CSF improved re-acquisition of spatial information after 26 days. These findings support the hypothesis that G-CSF can enhance learning and memory formation. Due to its easy applicability and its history as a well-tolerated hematological drug, the use of G-CSF opens up new neurological treatment opportunities in conditions where learning and memory-formation deficits occur. Free_PDF
B. T. Bratane, J. Bouley, A. Schneider, B. Bastan, N. Henninger and M. Fisher (2009)
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor delays PWI/DWI mismatch evolution and reduces final infarct volume in permanent-suture and embolic focal cerebral ischemia models in the rat
Stroke; 40: 9, 3102-6
Show abstract. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used clinically to attenuate neutropenia after chemotherapy. G-CSF acts as a growth factor in the central nervous system, counteracts apoptosis, and is neuroprotective in rodent transient ischemia models. METHODS: We assessed the effect of G-CSF on ischemic lesion evolution in a rat permanent-suture occlusion model with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF in a rat embolic stroke model. RESULTS: With a constant perfusion deficit, vehicle-treated animals showed an expanding apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume that matched the perfusion deficit volume at approximately 3 hours, with the 24-hour infarct volume equivalent to the perfusion deficit. In G-CSF-treated rats, the apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume did not increase after treatment initiation, and the infarct volume at 24 hours reflected the initial apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume. In the embolic model, we observed a significant decrease in infarct volume in G-CSF-treated animals compared with the vehicle-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the potent neuroprotective activity of G-CSF in different focal ischemia models. The magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrate that G-CSF preserved the perfusion/diffusion mismatch.
W. R. Schabitz, A. Schneider and R. Laage (2008)
Minocycline treatment in acute stroke: an open-label, evaluator-blinded study
Neurology; 71: 18, 1461; author reply 1461
W. R. Schabitz, C. Kruger, C. Pitzer, D. Weber, R. Laage, N. Gassler, J. Aronowski, W. Mier, F. Kirsch, T. Dittgen, A. Bach, C. Sommer and A. Schneider (2008)
A neuroprotective function for the hematopoietic protein granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 28: 1, 29-43
Show abstract. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of cells of the myeloid lineage, which was cloned more than 20 years ago. Here we uncovered a novel function of GM-CSF in the central nervous system (CNS). We identified the GM-CSF alpha-receptor as an upregulated gene in a screen for ischemia-induced genes in the cortex. This receptor is broadly expressed on neurons throughout the brain together with its ligand and induced by ischemic insults. In primary cortical neurons and human neuroblastoma cells, GM-CSF counteracts programmed cell death and induces BCL-2 and BCL-Xl expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Of the signaling pathways studied, GM-CSF most prominently induced the PI3K-Akt pathway, and inhibition of Akt strongly decreased antiapoptotic activity. Intravenously given GM-CSF passes the blood-brain barrier, and decreases infarct damage in two different experimental stroke models (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and combined common carotid/distal MCA occlusion) concomitant with induction of BCL-Xl expression. Thus, GM-CSF acts as a neuroprotective protein in the CNS. This finding is remarkably reminiscent of the recently discovered functionality of two other hematopoietic factors, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the CNS. The identification of a third hematopoietic factor acting as a neurotrophic factor in the CNS suggests a common principle in the functional evolution of these factors. Clinically, GM-CSF now broadens the repertoire of hematopoietic factors available as novel drug candidates for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
C. Pitzer, C. Kruger, C. Plaas, F. Kirsch, T. Dittgen, R. Muller, R. Laage, S. Kastner, S. Suess, R. Spoelgen, A. Henriques, H. Ehrenreich, W. R. Schabitz, A. Bach and A. Schneider (2008)
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves outcome in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Brain; 131: Pt 12, 3335-47
Show abstract. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in progressive loss of motoneurons, motor weakness and death within 1-5 years after disease onset. Therapeutic options remain limited despite a substantial number of approaches that have been tested clinically. In particular, various neurotrophic factors have been investigated. Failure in these trials has been largely ascribed to problems of insufficient dosing or inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have recently uncovered the neurotrophic properties of the haematopoietic protein granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The protein is clinically well tolerated and crosses the intact BBB. This study examined the potential role of G-CSF in motoneuron diseases. We investigated the expression of the G-CSF receptor in motoneurons and studied effects of G-CSF in a motoneuron cell line and in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model. The neurotrophic growth factor was applied both by continuous subcutaneous delivery and CNS-targeted transgenic overexpression. This study shows that given at the stage of the disease where muscle denervation is already evident, G-CSF leads to significant improvement in motor performance, delays the onset of severe motor impairment and prolongs overall survival of SOD1(G93A)tg mice. The G-CSF receptor is expressed by motoneurons and G-CSF protects cultured motoneuronal cells from apoptosis. In ALS mice, G-CSF increased survival of motoneurons and decreased muscular denervation atrophy. We conclude that G-CSF is a novel neurotrophic factor for motoneurons that is an attractive and feasible drug candidate for the treatment of ALS. Free_PDF
J. Minnerup, J. Heidrich, J. Wellmann, A. Rogalewski, A. Schneider and W. R. Schabitz (2008)
Meta-analysis of the efficacy of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia
Stroke; 39: 6, 1855-61
Show abstract. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent reports have described the efficacy of the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in animal stroke models. Early clinical multicenter trials evaluating the effect of G-CSF in acute stroke and pilot clinical trials for the subacute phase are ongoing. To guide further development, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of G-CSF on infarct size and sensorimotor deficits. METHODS: Using electronic and manual searches of the literature, we identified studies describing the efficacy of G-CSF in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study quality, G-CSF doses, time of administration, and outcome measured as infarct volume and/or sensorimotor deficit. Data from all studies were pooled by meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: Thirteen studies including 277 animals for infarct size calculation and 258 animals for assessment of sensorimotor deficit met the criteria for inclusion. Overall efficacy of G-CSF regarding infarct size reduction was 42%. Meta-regression analysis revealed a 0.8% (P<0.0001) decrease in infarct size per 1-mug/kg increase in G-CSF dose when applied within the first 6 hours and a 2.1% (P<0.0001) decrease when applied later than 6 hours after induction of ischemia with a significant (P=0.0004) greater infarct size reduction after delayed treatment. Sensorimotor deficits categorized into 3 subgroups improved between 24% and 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings consolidate G-CSF as a drug that both reduces infarct size and enhances functional recovery. These effects are presumably dose dependent. In contrast to most other neuroprotectants, a beneficial outcome may also be achieved when treatment is delayed.
M. H. Maurer, W. R. Schabitz and A. Schneider (2008)
Old friends in new constellations--the hematopoetic growth factors G-CSF, GM-CSF, and EPO for the treatment of neurological diseases
Curr Med Chem; 15: 14, 1407-11
Show abstract. Currently, growth factors which have been identified in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis are re-considered as therapeutical agents in a number of neurological diseases, mainly neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's Disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or cerebrovascular events such as stroke. Among these growth factors, erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating growth factor (G-CSF) are the most prominent. With regard to neurological disease, EPO has been tested in clinical trials for potential use in stroke, schizophrenia, and addiction, G-CSF is currently under clinical investigation for stroke treatment. The major advantage of these growth factors is their well-described pharmacological behavior and their clinical use over several years. A number of mechanisms of action in the CNS have been identified that are probably important for the beneficial action of these factors in animal models of disease, the most relevant relating to neuroprotection, neuroplasticity and stem cell growth and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the current efforts and prerequisites of novel growth factor therapies for neurodegenerative diseases with regard to their possible mechanism of action on the molecular level and their effects on brain-derived stem cell populations. Additionally, we will describe the necessities for future research before such therapies can be envisioned.
M. F. Lang, A. Schneider, C. Kruger, R. Schmid, R. Dziarski and M. Schwaninger (2008)
Peptidoglycan recognition protein-S (PGRP-S) is upregulated by NF-kappaB
Neurosci Lett; 430: 2, 138-41
Show abstract. Cerebral ischemia triggers inflammation and apoptosis, and the transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key regulator of both events. Here, we report on the induction of the peptidoglycan recognition protein-S (PGRP-S) in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Upregulation was reduced if the NF-kappaB subunit RelA was conditionally deleted in the brain. Regulation of PGRP-S transcription by RelA was confirmed in vitro. Cotransfection of a RelA expression plasmid stimulated the expression of a PGRP-S luciferase fusion gene. Mutation of two NF-kappaB response elements in the PGRP-S promoter disrupted stimulation by RelA. To investigate the function of PGRP-S in cerebral ischemia, we subjected PGRP-S(-/-) mice to cerebral ischemia. However, there was no difference in the infarct size in PGRP-S-deficient mice compared to controls. In summary, the data show that PGRP-S is induced in cerebral ischemia by RelA, but its role in ischemia is unclear.
F. Kirsch, C. Kruger and A. Schneider (2008)
The receptor for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is expressed in radial glia during development of the nervous system
BMC Dev Biol; 8: 32
Show abstract. BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony-stimulating (G-CSF) factor is a well-known hematopoietic growth factor stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Recently, we uncovered that G-CSF acts also as a neuronal growth factor in the brain, which promotes adult neural precursor differentiation and enhances regeneration of the brain after insults. In adults, the receptor for G-CSF is predominantly expressed in neurons in many brain areas. We also described expression in neurogenic regions of the adult brain, such as the subventricular zone and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. In addition, we found close co-localization of the G-CSF receptor and its ligand G-CSF. Here we have conducted a systematic expression analysis of G-CSF receptor and its ligand in the developing embryo. RESULTS: Outside the central nervous system (CNS) we found G-CSF receptor expression in blood vessels, muscles and their respective precursors and neurons. The expression of the G-CSF receptor in the developing CNS was most prominent in radial glia cells. CONCLUSION: Our data imply that in addition to the function of G-CSF and its receptor in adult neurogenesis, this system also has a role in embryonic neurogenesis and nervous system development. Free_PDF
W. R. Schabitz, T. Steigleder, C. M. Cooper-Kuhn, S. Schwab, C. Sommer, A. Schneider and H. G. Kuhn (2007)
Intravenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances poststroke sensorimotor recovery and stimulates neurogenesis
Stroke; 38: 7, 2165-72
Show abstract. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The discovery of spontaneous neuronal replacement in the adult brain has shifted experimental stroke therapies toward a combined approach of preventing neuronal cell death and inducing neuronal plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was shown to induce antiapoptotic mechanisms after stroke and to reduce infarct size and secondary neuronal cell death. Moreover, in intact animals, BDNF is a potent stimulator of adult neurogenesis. METHODS: The current study analyzed the effects of BDNF on induction of neuronal progenitor cell migration and sensorimotor recovery after cortical photothrombotic stroke. RESULTS: Daily intravenous bolus applications of BDNF during the first 5 days after stroke resulted in significantly improved sensorimotor scores up to 6 weeks. At the structural level, BDNF significantly increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and enhanced migration of subventricular zone progenitor cells to the nearby striatum of the ischemic hemisphere. BDNF treatment could not, however, further stimulate progenitor cell recruitment to the cortex. CONCLUSIONS: These findings consolidate the role of BDNF as a modulator of neurogenesis in the brain and as an enhancer of long-term functional neurological outcome after cerebral ischemia.
W. R. Schabitz and A. Schneider (2007)
New targets for established proteins: exploring G-CSF for the treatment of stroke
Trends Pharmacol Sci; 28: 4, 157-61
Show abstract. Several recent reports describe the efficacy of the hematopoietic factor granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in models of stroke and neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the role of G-CSF as a novel type of multifactorial drug with which to treat stroke, and describe aspects of its modes of action in stroke, in addition to the relationship between clinical trials and the preclinical dataset. Neuroprotective activity in stroke models seems to be based on a direct anti-apoptotic activity in neurons that is mediated by the neuronally expressed G-CSF receptor. Explanations for the long-term effects that improve recovery in different experimental models of stroke include the enhancement of neurogenesis in the adult brain and the stimulation of blood vessel formation. Additional beneficial effects might be based on systemic influences on immunocompetence and inflammation parameters, and the activation of bone-marrow-derived stem cells. Several clinical trials have been initiated in stroke patients, mainly to demonstrate the safety of G-CSF in this setting.
W. R. Schabitz, C. Kruger, C. Pitzer, D. Weber, R. Laage, N. Gassler, J. Aronowski, W. Mier, F. Kirsch, T. Dittgen, A. Bach, C. Sommer and A. Schneider (2007)
A neuroprotective function for the hematopoietic protein granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab;
Show abstract. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of cells of the myeloid lineage, which was cloned more than 20 years ago. Here we uncovered a novel function of GM-CSF in the central nervous system (CNS). We identified the GM-CSF alpha-receptor as an upregulated gene in a screen for ischemia-induced genes in the cortex. This receptor is broadly expressed on neurons throughout the brain together with its ligand and induced by ischemic insults. In primary cortical neurons and human neuroblastoma cells, GM-CSF counteracts programmed cell death and induces BCL-2 and BCL-Xl expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Of the signaling pathways studied, GM-CSF most prominently induced the PI3K-Akt pathway, and inhibition of Akt strongly decreased antiapoptotic activity. Intravenously given GM-CSF passes the blood-brain barrier, and decreases infarct damage in two different experimental stroke models (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and combined common carotid/distal MCA occlusion) concomitant with induction of BCL-Xl expression. Thus, GM-CSF acts as a neuroprotective protein in the CNS. This finding is remarkably reminiscent of the recently discovered functionality of two other hematopoietic factors, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the CNS. The identification of a third hematopoietic factor acting as a neurotrophic factor in the CNS suggests a common principle in the functional evolution of these factors. Clinically, GM-CSF now broadens the repertoire of hematopoietic factors available as novel drug candidates for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 25 April 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600496.
D. Newrzella, P. S. Pahlavan, C. Kruger, C. Boehm, O. Sorgenfrei, H. Schrock, G. Eisenhardt, N. Bischoff, G. Vogt, O. Wafzig, M. Rossner, M. H. Maurer, H. Hiemisch, A. Bach, W. Kuschinsky and A. Schneider (2007)
The functional genome of CA1 and CA3 neurons under native conditions and in response to ischemia
BMC Genomics; 8: 370
Show abstract. BACKGROUND: The different physiological repertoire of CA3 and CA1 neurons in the hippocampus, as well as their differing behaviour after noxious stimuli are ultimately based upon differences in the expressed genome. We have compared CA3 and CA1 gene expression in the uninjured brain, and after cerebral ischemia using laser microdissection (LMD), RNA amplification, and array hybridization. RESULTS: Profiling in CA1 vs. CA3 under normoxic conditions detected more than 1000 differentially expressed genes that belong to different, physiologically relevant gene ontology groups in both cell types. The comparison of each region under normoxic and ischemic conditions revealed more than 5000 ischemia-regulated genes for each individual cell type. Surprisingly, there was a high co-regulation in both regions. In the ischemic state, only about 100 genes were found to be differentially expressed in CA3 and CA1. The majority of these genes were also different in the native state. A minority of interesting genes (e.g. inhibinbetaA) displayed divergent expression preference under native and ischemic conditions with partially opposing directions of regulation in both cell types. CONCLUSION: The differences found in two morphologically very similar cell types situated next to each other in the CNS are large providing a rational basis for physiological differences. Unexpectedly, the genomic response to ischemia is highly similar in these two neuron types, leading to a substantial attenuation of functional genomic differences in these two cell types. Also, the majority of changes that exist in the ischemic state are not generated de novo by the ischemic stimulus, but are preexistant from the genomic repertoire in the native situation. This unexpected influence of a strong noxious stimulus on cell-specific gene expression differences can be explained by the activation of a cell-type independent conserved gene-expression program. Our data generate both novel insights into the relation of the quiescent and stimulus-induced transcriptome in different cells, and provide a large dataset to the research community, both for mapping purposes, as well as for physiological and pathophysiological research. Free_PDF
M. H. Maurer, J. O. Bromme, R. E. Feldmann, Jr., A. Jarve, F. Sabouri, H. F. Burgers, D. W. Schelshorn, C. Kruger, A. Schneider and W. Kuschinsky (2007)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) regulates differentiation and proliferation in neural stem cells from the rat subventricular zone
J Proteome Res; 6: 3, 1198-208
Show abstract. On the basis of its inhibition by SB216763, we identified the multifunctional enzyme Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) as a central regulator for differentiation and cell survival of adult neural stem cells. Detected by proteomic approaches, members of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway appear to participate in enhanced neuronal differentiation and activated transcription of beta-catenin target genes during GSK3beta inhibition, associated with decreased apoptosis.
C. Kruger, R. Laage, C. Pitzer, W. R. Schabitz and A. Schneider (2007)
The hematopoietic factor GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) promotes neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vitro
BMC Neurosci; 8: 1, 88
Show abstract. ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. We have recently demonstrated that GM-CSF has anti-apoptotic functions on neurons, and is neuroprotective in animal stroke models. RESULTS: The GM-CSF receptor alpha is expressed on adult neural stem cells in the rodent brain, and in culture. Addition of GM-CSF to NSCs in vitro increased neuronal differentiation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by quantitative PCR, reporter gene assays, and FACS analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The hematopoietic growth factor GM-CSF stimulates neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs. These data highlight the astonishingly similar functions of major hematopoietic factors in the brain, and raise the clinical attractiveness of GM-CSF as a novel drug for neurological disorders. Free_PDF
N. Gassler, W. Roth, B. Funke, A. Schneider, F. Herzog, J. J. Tischendorf, K. Grund, R. Penzel, I. G. Bravo, J. Mariadason, V. Ehemann, J. Sykora, T. L. Haas, H. Walczak, T. Ganten, H. Zentgraf, P. Erb, A. Alonso, F. Autschbach, P. Schirmacher, R. Knuchel and J. Kopitz (2007)
Regulation of Enterocyte Apoptosis by Acyl-CoA Synthetase 5 Splicing
Gastroenterology; 133: 2, 587-98
Show abstract. Background & Aims: The constant renewal of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis (CVA) of human small intestine is due to cell-inherent changes resulting in the apoptotic cell death of senescent enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine underlying molecular mechanisms of the cell death at the villus tip. Methods: Characterization of human acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase 5 (ACSL5) was performed by cloning, recombinant protein expression, biochemical approaches, and several functional and in situ analyses. Results: Our data show that different amounts of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-full length (ACSL5-fl) and a so far unknown splice variant lacking exon 20 (ACSL5-Delta20) are found in human enterocytes. In contrast with the splice variant ACSL5-Delta20, recombinant and purified ACSL5-fl protein is active at a highly alkaline pH. Over expression of ACSL5-fl protein is associated with a decrease of the anti-apoptotic FLIP protein in a ceramide-dependent manner and an increased cell-surface expression of the death receptor TRAIL-R1. Expression analyses revealed that the ACSL5-fl/ACSL5-Delta20 ratio increases along the CVA, thereby sensitizing ACSL5-fl-dominated cells at the villus tip to the death ligand TRAIL, which is corroborated by functional studies with human small intestinal mucosal samples and an immortalized human small intestinal cell line. Conclusions: Our results suggest an ACSL5-dependent regulatory mechanism that contributes to the cellular renewal along the CVA in human small intestine. Deregulation of the ACSL5-fl/ACSL5-Delta20 homeostasis in the maturation and shedding of cells along the CVA might also be of relevance for the development of intestinal neoplasia.
J. H. Weishaupt, C. Bartels, E. Polking, J. Dietrich, G. Rohde, B. Poeggeler, N. Mertens, S. Sperling, M. Bohn, G. Huther, A. Schneider, A. Bach, A. L. Siren, R. Hardeland, M. Bahr, K. A. Nave and H. Ehrenreich (2006)
Reduced oxidative damage in ALS by high-dose enteral melatonin treatment
J Pineal Res; 41: 4, 313-23
Show abstract. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the collective term for a fatal motoneuron disease of different etiologies, with oxidative stress as a common molecular denominator of disease progression. Melatonin is an amphiphilic molecule with a unique spectrum of antioxidative effects not conveyed by classical antioxidants. In preparation of a possible future clinical trial, we explored the potential of melatonin as neuroprotective compound and antioxidant in: (1) cultured motoneuronal cells (NSC-34), (2) a genetic mouse model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mice), and (3) a group of 31 patients with sporadic ALS. We found that melatonin attenuates glutamate-induced cell death of cultured motoneurons. In SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mice, high-dose oral melatonin delayed disease progression and extended survival. In a clinical safety study, chronic high-dose (300 mg/day) rectal melatonin was well tolerated during an observation period of up to 2 yr. Importantly, circulating serum protein carbonyls, which provide a surrogate marker for oxidative stress, were elevated in ALS patients, but were normalized to control values by melatonin treatment. This combination of preclinical effectiveness and proven safety in humans suggests that high-dose melatonin is suitable for clinical trials aimed at neuroprotection through antioxidation in ALS.
M. C. Wehr, R. Laage, U. Bolz, T. M. Fischer, S. Grunewald, S. Scheek, A. Bach, K. A. Nave and M. J. Rossner (2006)
Monitoring regulated protein-protein interactions using split TEV
Nat Methods; 3: 12, 985-93
Show abstract. Signaling cascades integrate extracellular stimuli primarily through regulated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Intracellular signal transduction strictly depends on PPIs occurring at the membrane and in the cytosol. To monitor constitutive and regulated protein interactions within living mammalian cells, we have developed a biological assay termed split TEV. We engineered inactive fragments of the NIa protease from the tobacco etch virus (TEV protease) that regain activity only when coexpressed as fusion constructs with interacting proteins. Functional reconstitution of TEV protease fragments can be monitored with 'proteolysis-only' reporters, which can be previously silent fluorescent and luminescent reporter proteins. Additionally, proteolytically cleavable inactive transcription factors can be combined with any downstream reporter gene of choice to yield 'transcription-coupled' reporter systems. Thus, split TEV combines the advantages of split enzyme- and reporter gene-mediated assays, and provides full flexibility with regard to the final readout. In a first biological application, we monitored neuregulin-induced ErbB2/ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase heterodimerization.
A. Schneider, R. Wysocki, C. Pitzer, C. Kruger, R. Laage, S. Schwab, A. Bach and W. R. Schabitz (2006)
An extended window of opportunity for G-CSF treatment in cerebral ischemia
BMC Biol; 4: 36
Show abstract. BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known as a powerful regulator of white blood cell proliferation and differentiation in mammals. We, and others, have shown that G-CSF is effective in treating cerebral ischemia in rodents, both relating to infarct size as well as functional recovery. G-CSF and its receptor are expressed by neurons, and G-CSF regulates apoptosis and neurogenesis, providing a rational basis for its beneficial short- and long-term actions in ischemia. In addition, G-CSF may contribute to re-endothelialisation and arteriogenesis in the vasculature of the ischemic penumbra. In addition to these trophic effects, G-CSF is a potent neuroprotective factor reliably reducing infarct size in different stroke models. RESULTS: Here, we have further delayed treatment and studied effects of G-CSF on infarct volume in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and functional outcome in the cortical photothrombotic model. In the MCAO model, we applied a single dose of 60 microg/kg bodyweight G-CSF in rats 4 h after onset of ischemia. Infarct volume was determined 24 h after onset of ischemia. In the rat photothrombotic model, we applied 10 microg/kg bodyweight G-CSF daily for a period of 10 days starting either 24 or 72 h after induction of ischemia. G-CSF both decreased acute infarct volume in the MCAO model, and improved recovery in the photothrombotic model at delayed timepoints. CONCLUSION: These data further strengthen G-CSF's profile as a unique candidate stroke drug, and provide an experimental basis for application of G-CSF in the post-stroke recovery phase. Free_PDF
W. R. Schabitz and A. Schneider (2006)
Developing Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of Stroke: Current Status of Clinical Trials
W. R. Schabitz, S. Nikol and A. Schneider (2006)
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and acute myocardial infarction
Jama; 296: 16, 1967-8; author reply 1968-9
M. J. Rossner, J. Hirrlinger, S. P. Wichert, C. Boehm, D. Newrzella, H. Hiemisch, G. Eisenhardt, C. Stuenkel, O. von Ahsen and K. A. Nave (2006)
Global transcriptome analysis of genetically identified neurons in the adult cortex
J Neurosci; 26: 39, 9956-66
Show abstract. The enormous cellular complexity of the brain is a major obstacle for gene expression profiling of neurological disease models, because physiologically relevant changes of transcription in a specific neuronal subset are likely to be lost in the presence of other neurons and glia. We solved this problem in transgenic mice by labeling genetically defined cells with a nuclear variant of GFP. When combined with laser-directed microdissection, intact RNA from unfixed, freeze-dried sections can be isolated, which is a prerequisite for high-quality global transcriptome analysis. Here, we compared gene expression profiles between pyramidal motor neurons and pyramidal somatosensory neurons captured from layer V of the adult neocortex. One striking feature of motor neurons is the elevated expression of ribosomal genes and genes involved in ATP synthesis. This suggests a molecular adaptation of the upper motor neurons to longer axonal projections and higher electrical activity. These molecular signatures were not detected when cortical layers and microareas were analyzed in toto. Additionally, we used microarrays to determine the global mRNA expression profiles of microdissected Purkinje cells and cellularly complex cerebellar cortex microregions. In summary, our analysis shows that cellularly complex targets lead to averaged gene expression profiles that lack substantial amounts of cell type-specific information. Thus, cell type-restricted sampling strategies are mandatory in the CNS. The combined use of a genetic label with laser-microdissection offers an unbiased approach to map patterns of gene expression onto practically any cell type of the brain.
A. Rogalewski, A. Schneider, E. B. Ringelstein and W. R. Schabitz (2006)
Toward a multimodal neuroprotective treatment of stroke
Stroke; 37: 4, 1129-36
Show abstract. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke remains a common medical problem with importance attributable to the demographic changes in industrialized societies. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: After years of setbacks, acute stroke therapy has finally emerged, including thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). However, t-PA treatment is limited by a narrow time window and side effects, so that only 3% of all stroke patients receive thrombolysis. Unimodal targeting of key events in stroke pathophysiology was not effective in providing long-term benefits, leading to negative results in previous clinical neuroprotective stroke trials. A successful future stroke therapy should approach multiple pathophysiological mechanisms besides revascularization at once, including reduction of t-PA-related side effects, prevention of cell death, stimulation of neuroregeneration, and plasticity. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies targeting these processes include multiple combination therapies as well as treatment with multimodal drugs that interact with these mechanisms. Here, we review such combination approaches, and outline how this concept could be developed into future stroke treatment.
K. Meuer, C. Pitzer, P. Teismann, C. Kruger, B. Goricke, R. Laage, P. Lingor, K. Peters, J. C. Schlachetzki, K. Kobayashi, G. P. Dietz, D. Weber, B. Ferger, W. R. Schabitz, A. Bach, J. B. Schulz, M. Bahr, A. Schneider and J. H. Weishaupt (2006)
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is neuroprotective in a model of Parkinson's disease
Show abstract. We have recently shown that the hematopoietic Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke models, and that this action appears to be mediated via a neuronal G-CSF receptor. Here, we report that the G-CSF receptor is expressed in rodent dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons, suggesting that G-CSF might be neuroprotective for dopaminergic neurons and a candidate molecule for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Thus, we investigated protective effects of G-CSF in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-challenged PC12 cells and primary neuronal midbrain cultures, as well as in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. Substantial protection was found against MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic cell death in vitro. Moreover, subcutaneous application of G-CSF at a dose of 40 mug/Kg body weight daily over 13 days rescued dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons from MPTP-induced death in aged mice, as shown by quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra cells. Using HPLC, a corresponding reduction in striatal dopamine depletion after MPTP application was observed in G-CSF-treated mice. Thus our data suggest that G-CSF is a novel therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, because it is well-tolerated and already approved for the treatment of neutropenic conditions in humans.
C. Kruger, D. Cira, C. Sommer, A. Fischer, W. R. Schabitz and A. Schneider (2006)
Long-term gene expression changes in the cortex following cortical ischemia revealed by transcriptional profiling
Exp Neurol; 200: 1, 135-52
Show abstract. Cerebral ischemia evokes changes in gene expression time-dependently after the ischemic event. Most studies on transcriptional changes following ischemia have centered on relatively early postischemic time points, and detected multiple genes relevant to neuronal cell death. However, functional outcome after ischemia depends critically on adaptations of the postischemic brain. Plasticity may derive from network-inherent changes, or from the formation of new nerve cells in the CNS. We have screened for gene expression changes up to 3 weeks following a limited photothrombotic cortical insult in the rat sensorimotor cortex by using the sensitive restriction-mediated differential display (RMDD) technique. A high number of genes were detected as induced at early or intermediate time points in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex (6 and 48 h). Unexpectedly, at the late time point examined (3 weeks), we still detected 40 genes that were changed in their expression. We further characterized the expression of two genes linked to neurogenesis (nestin and stathmin), and two genes likely involved in reconfiguring neuronal networks (semaphorin VIa and synaptotagmin IV). Conclusively, our data highlight the degree of long-term transcriptional changes in the cortex after ischemia, and provide insight into functional pathways of relevance for compensatory recovery mechanisms in neural networks.
W. Zhang, I. Potrovita, V. Tarabin, O. Herrmann, V. Beer, F. Weih, A. Schneider and M. Schwaninger (2005)
Neuronal activation of NF-kappaB contributes to cell death in cerebral ischemia
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 25: 1, 30-40
Show abstract. The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key regulator of inflammation and cell survival. NF-kappaB is activated by cerebral ischemia in neurons and glia, but its function is controversial. To inhibit NF-kappaB selectively in neurons and glial cells, we have generated transgenic mice that express the IkappaBalpha superrepressor (IkappaBalpha mutated at serine-32 and serine-36, IkappaBalpha-SR) under transcriptional control of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, respectively. In primary cortical neurons of NSE-IkappaBalpha-SR mice, NF-kappaB activity was partially inhibited. To assess NF-kappaB activity in vivo after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we measured the expression of NF-kappaB target genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The induction of c-myc and transforming growth factor-beta2 by cerebral ischemia was inhibited by neuronal expression of IkappaBalpha-SR, whereas induction of GFAP by MCAO was reduced by astrocytic expression of IkappaBalpha-SR. Neuronal, but not astrocytic, expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor reduced both infarct size and cell death 48 hours after permanent MCAO. In summary, the data show that NF-kappaB is activated in neurons and astrocytes during cerebral ischemia and that NF-kappaB activation in neurons contributes to the ischemic damage.
A. Schneider, H. G. Kuhn and W. R. Schabitz (2005)
A role for G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) in the central nervous system
Cell Cycle; 4: 12, 1753-7
Show abstract. G-CSF (Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) is a hematopoietic growth factor that has been known for 20 years, and has been named for its role in the proliferation and differentiation of cells of the myeloic lineage. We have uncovered a novel spectrum of activities of G-CSF in the central nervous system. G-CSF and its receptor are expressed by neurons in many brain regions, and are upregulated upon experimental stroke. In neurons, G-CSF acts anti-apoptotically by activating several protective pathways. In vivo, G-CSF decreases infarct volumes in acute stroke models in rodents. Moreover, G-CSF stimulates neuronal differentiation of adult neural stem cells in the brain, and improves long-term recovery in more chronic stroke models. Thus, G-CSF is a novel neurotrophic factor, and a highly attractive candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. Here we discuss this new property of G-CSF in contrast to its known functions in the hematopoietic system, summarize data from other groups on G-CSF's actions in cerebral ischemia, compare G-CSF to Erythropoietin (EPO) in the CNS, and highlight clinical implications.
A. Schneider, C. Kruger, T. Steigleder, D. Weber, C. Pitzer, R. Laage, J. Aronowski, M. H. Maurer, N. Gassler, W. Mier, M. Hasselblatt, R. Kollmar, S. Schwab, C. Sommer, A. Bach, H. G. Kuhn and W. R. Schabitz (2005)
The hematopoietic factor G-CSF is a neuronal ligand that counteracts programmed cell death and drives neurogenesis
J Clin Invest; 115: 8, 2083-98
Show abstract. G-CSF is a potent hematopoietic factor that enhances survival and drives differentiation of myeloid lineage cells, resulting in the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Here, we show that G-CSF passes the intact blood-brain barrier and reduces infarct volume in 2 different rat models of acute stroke. G-CSF displays strong anti-apoptotic activity in mature neurons and activates multiple cell survival pathways. Both G-CSF and its receptor are widely expressed by neurons in the CNS, and their expression is induced by ischemia, which suggests an autocrine protective signaling mechanism. Surprisingly, the G-CSF receptor was also expressed by adult neural stem cells, and G-CSF induced neuronal differentiation in vitro. G-CSF markedly improved long-term behavioral outcome after cortical ischemia, while stimulating neural progenitor response in vivo, providing a link to functional recovery. Thus, G-CSF is an endogenous ligand in the CNS that has a dual activity beneficial both in counteracting acute neuronal degeneration and contributing to long-term plasticity after cerebral ischemia. We therefore propose G-CSF as a potential new drug for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
N. Gassler, I. Herr, A. Schneider, R. Penzel, L. Langbein, P. Schirmacher and J. Kopitz (2005)
Impaired expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 in sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas
J Pathol; 207: 3, 295-300
Show abstract. Several pathways of fatty acid metabolism have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Fatty acid acyl-CoA thioesters are formed from free fatty acids and coenzyme A by the activity of acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs). Whilst an increase in ACS4 expression has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, little is known about possible pathogenetic functions of other ACS isoforms, such as ACS5, in tumourigenesis. In the present study, gene expression, protein synthesis, and enzymatic activity of ACS5 in sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas, adenomas, and established cell lines were analysed using RT-PCR, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, and an enzymatic assay. Enhanced expression of ACS5 mRNA and protein as well as enzymatic activity was found in adenomas and in 11 (73%; group 1) of 15 colorectal adenocarcinomas investigated, while a decrease of ACS5 was seen in four tumours (27%; group 2). However, basal ACS5 enzymatic activity was increased as a percentage of the total activity of ACSs in both groups, arguing for an absolute (group 1) or relative (group 2) increase in ACS5 enzymatic activity in all adenocarcinomas investigated. These findings are reflected by in vitro analysis of three established colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, in which activity of ACS5 occurred. The results suggest the involvement of ACS5 in the early genesis of colorectal cancer, most likely by modification of the transport and pool formation of long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters, as recently demonstrated for other isoforms of the ACS family.
C. Bohm, D. Newrzella and O. Sorgenfrei (2005)
Laser microdissection in CNS research
Drug Discov Today; 10: 17, 1167-74
Show abstract. The complexity of the brain makes the investigation of anatomically defined regions using manual dissection techniques problematic. With these manual dissection techniques, only a mixture of many different cell types can be obtained. This leads to averaging the contents of all the different cell types, making it nearly impossible to observe effects that are specific to one type of cell. Laser microdissection enables individual cell-types to be dissected accurately from the brain for subsequent analysis of the genome, proteome or, most frequently, the transcriptome. Investigating only functionally relevant cells with high specificity provides unambiguous data, resulting in faster identification of potential targets, the elucidation of drug mode-of-action, as well as aiding identification of biomarkers for diagnostics use.
A. Schneider, R. Laage, O. von Ahsen, A. Fischer, M. Rossner, S. Scheek, S. Grunewald, R. Kuner, D. Weber, C. Kruger, B. Klaussner, B. Gotz, H. Hiemisch, D. Newrzella, A. Martin-Villalba, A. Bach and M. Schwaninger (2004)
Identification of regulated genes during permanent focal cerebral ischaemia: characterization of the protein kinase 9b5/MARKL1/MARK4
J Neurochem; 88: 5, 1114-26
Show abstract. Cerebral ischaemia induces transcriptional changes in a number of pathophysiologically important genes. Here we have systematically studied gene expression changes after 90 min and 24 h of permanent focal ischaemia in the mouse by an advanced fragment display technique (restriction-mediated differential display). We identified 56 transcriptionally altered genes, many of which provide novel hints to ischaemic pathophysiology. Particularly interesting were two pro-apoptotic genes (Grim19 and Tdag51), whose role in cerebral ischaemia and neuronal cell death has not been recognized so far. Among the unknown sequences, we identified a gene that was rapidly and transiently up-regulated. The encoded protein displayed high homology to the MARK family of serine-threonine protein kinases and has recently been described as MARKL1/MARK4. Here we demonstrate that this protein is a functional protein kinase with the ability to specifically phosphorylate a cognate peptide substrate for the AMP-kinase family. Upon overexpression in heterologous cells, the functional wild-type protein, but not its kinase-dead mutant, led to decreased cell viability. We conclude that the up-regulation of this kinase during focal ischaemia may represent an interesting new target for pharmacological intervention.
A. Schneider, A. Fischer, D. Weber, O. von Ahsen, S. Scheek, C. Kruger, M. Rossner, B. Klaussner, N. Faucheron, B. Kammandel, B. Goetz, O. Herrmann, A. Bach and M. Schwaninger (2004)
Restriction-mediated differential display (RMDD) identifies pip92 as a pro-apoptotic gene product induced during focal cerebral ischemia
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 24: 2, 224-36
Show abstract. Studies of gene expression changes after cerebral ischemia can provide novel insight into ischemic pathophysiology. Here we describe application of restriction-mediated differential display to screening for differentially expressed genes after focal cerebral ischemia. This method combines the nonredundant generation of biotin-labeled fragment sets with the excellent resolution of direct blotting electrophoresis, reliable fragment recovery, and a novel clone selection strategy. Using the filament model in mouse with 90 minutes MCA occlusion followed by 2, 6, and 20 hours reperfusion, we have compared gene expression in sham-operated animals to both the ipsi- and contralateral forebrain hemisphere of ischemic mice. Our screening method has resulted in the identification of 70 genes differentially regulated after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), several of which represent unknown clones. We have identified many of the previously published regulated genes, lending high credibility to our method. Surprisingly, we detected a high degree of correspondent regulation of genes in the nonischemic hemisphere. A high percentage of genes coding for proteins in the respiratory chain was found to be up-regulated after ischemia, potentially representing a new mechanism involved in counteracting energy failure or radical generation in cerebral ischemia. One particularly interesting gene, whose upregulation by ischemia has not been described before, is pip92; this gene shows a rapid and long-lasting induction after cerebral ischemia. Here we demonstrate that pip92 induces cell death in primary neurons and displays several hallmarks of pro-apoptotic activity upon overexpression, supporting the notion that we have identified a novel pathophysiological player in cerebral ischemia. In summary, restriction-mediated differential display has proven its suitability for screening complex samples such as brain to reliably identify regulated genes, which can uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms.
A. Schneider, A. Fischer, C. Kruger and J. Aronowski (2004)
Identification of regulated genes during transient cortical ischemia in mice by restriction-mediated differential display (RMDD)
Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 124: 1, 20-8
Show abstract. Cerebral ischemia induces transcriptional changes in a number of pathophysiologically important genes. Here we have systematically studied gene expression changes in the cortex after 150 min of focal cortical ischemia and 2 and 6 h reperfusion in the mouse by a fragment display technique (restriction-mediated differential display, RMDD). We identified 57 transcriptionally altered genes, of which 46 were known genes, and 11 unknown sequences. Of note, 14% of the regulated genes detected at 2 h reperfusion time were co-regulated in the contralateral cortex. Four genes were verified to be upregulated by quantitative PCR. These were Metallothionein-II (mt2), Receptor (calcitonin)-activity modifying protein 2 (ramp2), Mitochondrial phosphoprotein 65 (MIPP65), and the transcription elongation factor B2/elongin B (tceb). We could identify several genes that are known to be induced by cerebral ischemia, such as the metallothioneins and c-fos. Many of the genes identified provide hints to potential new mechanisms in ischemic pathophysiology. We discuss the identity of the regulated genes in view of their possible usefulness for pharmacological intervention in cerebral ischemia.
J. B. Regard, S. Scheek, T. Borbiev, A. A. Lanahan, A. Schneider, A. M. Demetriades, H. Hiemisch, C. A. Barnes, A. D. Verin and P. F. Worley (2004)
Verge: a novel vascular early response gene
J Neurosci; 24: 16, 4092-103
Show abstract. Vascular endothelium forms a continuous, semipermeable barrier that regulates the transvascular movement of hormones, macromolecules, and other solutes. Here, we describe a novel immediate early gene that is expressed selectively in vascular endothelial cells, verge (vascular early response gene). Verge protein includes an N-terminal region of approximately 70 amino acids with modest homology (approximately 30% identity) to Apolipoprotein L but is otherwise unique. Verge mRNA and protein are induced selectively in the endothelium of adult vasculature by electrical or chemical seizures. Verge expression appears to be responsive to local tissue conditions, because it is induced in the hemisphere ipsilateral to transient focal cerebral ischemia. In contrast to the transient expression in adult, Verge mRNA and protein are constitutively expressed at high levels in the endothelium of developing tissues (particularly heart) in association with angiogenesis. Verge mRNA is induced in cultured endothelial cells by defined growth factors and hypoxia. Verge protein is dramatically increased by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, suggesting rapid turnover, and is localized to focal regions near the periphery of the cells. Endothelial cell lines that stably express Verge form monolayers that show enhanced permeability in response to activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters. This response is accompanied by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of paracellular gaps. These studies suggest that Verge functions as a dynamic regulator of endothelial cell signaling and vascular function.
I. Potrovita, W. Zhang, L. Burkly, K. Hahm, J. Lincecum, M. Z. Wang, M. H. Maurer, M. Rossner, A. Schneider and M. Schwaninger (2004)
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis-induced neurodegeneration
J Neurosci; 24: 38, 8237-44
Show abstract. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines. It has proangiogenic and proinflammatory properties in vivo and induces cell death in tumor cell lines. TWEAK effects are mediated by the membrane receptor Fn14. In a systematic search for genes regulated in a murine stroke model with the tag-sequencing technique massively parallel signature sequencing, we have identified TWEAK as an induced gene. After 24 hr of focal cerebral ischemia in vivo or oxygen glucose deprivation in primary cortical neurons, both TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were significantly upregulated. TWEAK induced cell death in primary neurons. Transfection of a nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-luciferase fusion gene demonstrated that TWEAK stimulated transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB through Fn14 and the IkappaB kinase. Inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced TWEAK-stimulated neuronal cell death, suggesting that NF-kappaB mediates TWEAK-induced neurodegeneration at least in part. Intraperitoneal injection of a neutralizing anti-TWEAK antibody significantly reduced the infarct size after 48 hr of permanent cerebral ischemia. In summary, our data show that TWEAK induces neuronal cell death and is involved in neurodegeneration in vivo.
M. H. Maurer, S. Grunewald, N. Gassler, M. Rossner, F. Propst, R. Wurz, D. Weber, T. Kuner, W. Kuschinsky and A. Schneider (2004)
Cloning of a novel neuronally expressed orphan G-protein-coupled receptor which is up-regulated by erythropoietin, interacts with microtubule-associated protein 1b and colocalizes with the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2a receptor
J Neurochem; 91: 4, 1007-17
Show abstract. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest group of cell surface molecules involved in signal transduction and are receptors for a wide variety of stimuli ranging from light, calcium and odourants to biogenic amines and peptides. It is assumed that systematic genomic data-mining has identified the overwhelming majority of all remaining GPCRs in the genome. Here we report the cloning of a novel orphan GPCR which was identified in a search for erythropoietin-induced genes in the brain as a strongly up-regulated gene. This unknown gene coded for a protein which had a seven-transmembrane topology and key features typical of GPCRs of the A family but a low overall identity to all known GPCRs. The protein, coded ee3, has an unusually high evolutionary conservation and is expressed in neurons in diverse areas of the CNS with relation to integrative functions or motor tasks. A yeast two-hybrid screen for interacting proteins revealed binding to the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1b. Coupling to MAP1a has been described for another cognate GPCR, the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) 2a receptor. Surprisingly, we found complete colocalization of ee3 and the 5HT2a receptor. The interaction with MAP1b proved to be critical for the stability or folding of ee3 as in mice lacking MAP1b the ee3 protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry, although messenger RNA levels remained unchanged. We propose that ee3 is a highly interesting new orphan GPCR with potential connections to erythropoietin and 5HT2a receptor signalling.
R. Kuner, P. Teismann, A. Trutzel, J. Naim, A. Richter, N. Schmidt, A. Bach, B. Ferger and A. Schneider (2004)
TorsinA, the gene linked to early-onset dystonia, is upregulated by the dopaminergic toxin MPTP in mice
Neurosci Lett; 355: 1-2, 126-30
Show abstract. Early-onset torsion dystonias are caused by a mutation in TorsinA, a protein widely expressed in the nervous system. Here we report the cloning of the murine TorsinA cDNA and a mRNA in situ hybridization analysis of the expression patterns of TorsinA over developmental periods relevant to the etiology of early-onset dystonias. Several studies have demonstrated a functional involvement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in pathological mechanisms underlying dystonia. In this study, we show that the expression of TorsinA is significantly increased in the brain within hours of treatment with the dopaminergic toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice, suggesting that the TorsinA gene is regulated by cellular stress. These results provide insights into the pathophysiology of early-onset dystonia and strengthen links between the dopaminergic system and dystonia.
M. Welschof, C. Christ, I. Hermes, A. Keller, C. Kleist and M. Braunagel (2003)
Generation and screening of a modular human scFv expression library from multiple donors
Methods Mol Biol; 207: 103-21
R. Kuner, P. Teismann, A. Trutzel, J. Naim, A. Richter, N. Schmidt, O. von Ahsen, A. Bach, B. Ferger and A. Schneider (2003)
TorsinA protects against oxidative stress in COS-1 and PC12 cells
Neurosci Lett; 350: 3, 153-6
Show abstract. Dystonia is a highly frequent movement disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. The cloning of TorsinA, the gene responsible for early-onset dystonia, was a major breakthrough. However, the function of this protein remains unclear. By sequence homology, TorsinA belongs to the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities-family, many of whose members are chaperones and/or proteases. We report here that in an in vitro model for oxidative stress, H2O2 treatment, overexpression of TorsinA was protective against cell death. COS-1 cells overexpressing TorsinA demonstrated drastically reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling-staining following exposure to H2O2. Furthermore, transfection with TorsinA significantly increased survival of PC12 after H2O2 treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that TorsinA protects against oxidative stress. We speculate that a loss of this cellular function in mutant TorsinA may be linked to the pathogenesis of early-onset dystonia.
O. Herrmann, V. Tarabin, S. Suzuki, N. Attigah, I. Coserea, A. Schneider, J. Vogel, S. Prinz, S. Schwab, H. Monyer, F. Brombacher and M. Schwaninger (2003)
Regulation of body temperature and neuroprotection by endogenous interleukin-6 in cerebral ischemia
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 23: 4, 406-15
Show abstract. Although the function of fever is still unclear, it is now beyond doubt that body temperature influences the outcome of brain damage. An elevated body temperature is often found in stroke patients and denotes a bad prognosis. However, the pathophysiologic basis and treatment options of elevated body temperature after stroke are still unknown. Cerebral ischemia rapidly induced neuronal interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in mice. In IL-6-deficient mice, body temperature was markedly decreased after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), but infarct size was comparable to that in control mice. If body temperature was controlled by external warming after MCAO, IL-6-deficient mice had a reduced survival, worse neurologic status, and larger infarcts than control animals. In cell culture, IL-6 exerted an antiapoptotic and neuroprotective effect. These data suggest that IL-6 is a key regulator of body temperature and an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotective properties apparently compensate for its pyretic action after MCAO and enhance the safety of this endogenous pyrogen.
N. Gassler, A. Schneider, J. Kopitz, M. Schnolzer, N. Obermuller, J. Kartenbeck, H. F. Otto and F. Autschbach (2003)
Impaired expression of acyl-CoA-synthetase 5 in epithelial tumors of the small intestine
Hum Pathol; 34: 10, 1048-52
Show abstract. Fatty acids are implicated in tumorigenesis, but data are limited concerning endogenous fatty acid metabolism of tumor cells in adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the small intestine. The recently cloned human acyl-CoA-synthetase 5 (ACS5) is predominantly found in the small intestine and represents a key enzyme in providing cytosolic acyl-CoA thioesters. Protein synthesis and mRNA expression of ACS5 were studied in human intestinal tissues using different methods, including a newly established monoclonal antibody. In the healthy small intestine, expression of ACS5 was restricted to the villus surface epithelium but was not detectable in enterocytes lining crypts. ACS5 protein and mRNA were progressively diminished in epithelial cells of adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the small intestine. In conclusion, altered expression of ACS5 is probably related to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of small intestinal epithelial tumors due to an impaired acyl-CoA thioester synthesis.
A. Fischer (2003)
Macroresults for microarrays--an array of possibilities
Pharmacogenomics; 4: 4, 379-81
T. Storck, M. C. von Brevern, C. K. Behrens, J. Scheel and A. Bach (2002)
Transcriptomics in predictive toxicology
Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel; 5: 1, 90-7
Show abstract. Once again, genomics is about to change drug development. Following its major impact on target discovery and assay development, which increased the number of compounds at early stages of the process, genomics is now zeroing in on the prediction of potential toxicological problems of compounds. Toxicogenomics is the analysis of toxicological processes at the transcriptome level of a target organ or cell. By simultaneously monitoring the effect of a compound on the transcription levels of hundreds to thousands of genes, toxicogenomics can provide an enormous amount of data. This data bears information on the way in which compounds act at the molecular level, reaching far beyond the mere conclusion of whether or not a particular toxicological outcome is elicited. By compiling transcription profiles for well-known toxicants, we are beginning to learn how to analyze this novel type of data in the context of mechanistic and predictive toxicology.
J. Scheel, M. C. Von Brevern, A. Horlein, A. Fischer, A. Schneider and A. Bach (2002)
Yellow pages to the transcriptome
Pharmacogenomics; 3: 6, 791-807
Show abstract. Transcriptomics has become an important tool for the large-scale analysis of biological processes. This review aims to provide sufficient criteria to make an appropriate choice among the variety of 'closed' systems, represented by DNA microarrays, and 'open' systems like fragment display, tag sequencing and subtractive hybridization, depending on the biological system under investigation. The most important technologies currently available are presented, their strengths and weaknesses are discussed and companies active in the field are listed. The potential of transcriptomics in the pharmaceutical research and development process is highlighted by applications in oncology, research on neurological diseases, and predictive toxicology. Finally, a prognosis for future developments of the technologies is given.
A. Muffler, S. Bettermann, M. Haushalter, A. Horlein, U. Neveling, M. Schramm and O. Sorgenfrei (2002)
Genome-wide transcription profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum after heat shock and during growth on acetate and glucose
J Biotechnol; 98: 2-3, 255-68
Show abstract. To monitor the global gene expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum we established two formats of DNA-arrays on nylon membranes. We produced an ordered DNA-array of PCR fragments from a shotgun library of C. glutamicum representing a threefold coverage of the genome. With this format we studied genome-wide transcriptional changes after heat shock. Sequence and subsequent BLAST analysis of PCR fragments with elevated expression after heat shock revealed PCR fragments harboring genes that encode several proteins of the heat shock family, proteins of the oxidative stress response and proteins with unknown function. DNA-arrays based on PCR fragments representing 2804 annotated ORFs of C. glutamicum were used to monitor the transcript levels during growth on acetate and glucose. We determined minimal detectable ratios and compared labeling approaches with random hexamers and ORF-specific primers. ORF-based DNA-array analysis with different labeling approaches showed similar results: e.g. increased mRNA levels of the pta-ack operon, aceA, aceB and genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and enzymes of the citric acid cycle during growth on acetate and elevated mRNA levels of some enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and lactate dehydrogenase upon growth on glucose. These results demonstrate that shotgun DNA-arrays and ORF-based DNA-arrays are appropriate tools to study physiology of microorganism.
M. H. Maurer, T. Frietsch, K. F. Waschke, W. Kuschinsky, M. Gassmann and A. Schneider (2002)
Cerebral transcriptome analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing erythropoietin
Neurosci Lett; 327: 3, 181-4
Show abstract. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor are expressed in the brain, and one of its roles appears to be neuroprotection. This study investigates whether chronic overexpression of EPO changes brain mRNA expression in the brains of transgenic mice. Therefore, cerebral mRNA expression was investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing EPO. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation (2.8- to 3.6-fold) of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (prolongation of the EPO effect), a translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitochondrial matrix import of nuclear encoded proteins), a mitochondrial ribosomal protein (mitochondrial protein translation), and a peroxisomal biogenesis factor (formation of peroxisomes). In conclusion, components of oxidative metabolism pathways were activated at the level of transcription which could be related to neuroprotective effects of EPO or could indicate compromised tissue.
S. Grunewald, B. J. Schupp, S. R. Ikeda, R. Kuner, F. Steigerwald, H. C. Kornau and G. Kohr (2002)
Importance of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptor C-termini for G-protein coupling
Mol Pharmacol; 61: 5, 1070-80
Show abstract. Functional gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors assemble from two subunits, GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2).) This heteromerization, which involves a C-terminal coiled-coil interaction, ensures efficient surface trafficking and agonist-dependent G-protein activation. In the present study, we took a closer look at the implications of the intracellular C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) for G-protein coupling. We generated a series of C-terminal mutants of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) and tested them for physical interaction, surface trafficking, coupling to adenylyl cyclase, and G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as well as on endogenous calcium channels in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). We found that the C-terminal interaction contributes only partly to the heterodimeric assembly of the subunits, indicating the presence of an additional interaction site. The described endoplasmic reticulum retention signal within the C terminus of GABA(B(1)) functioned only in the context of specific amino acids, which constitute part of the GABA(B(1)) coiled-coil sequence. This finding may provide a link between the retention signal and its shielding by the coiled coil of GABA(B(2).) In HEK293 cells, we observed that the two well-known GABA(B) receptor antagonists [S-(R*,R*)]-[3-[[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-hydroxypropyl](cyclo hexylmethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP54626) and (+)-(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911) CGP54626 and SCH50911 function as inverse agonists. The C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) strongly influenced agonist-independent G-protein coupling, although they were not necessary for agonist-dependent G-protein coupling. The C-terminal GABA(B) receptor mutants described here demonstrate that the active receptor conformation is stabilized by the coiled-coil interaction. Thus, the C-terminal conformation of the GABA(B) receptor may determine its constitutive activity, which could be a therapeutic target for inverse agonists.
N. Gassler, M. Schnolzer, C. Rohr, B. Helmke, J. Kartenbeck, S. Grunewald, R. Laage, A. Schneider, B. Kranzlin, A. Bach, H. F. Otto and F. Autschbach (2002)
Expression of calnexin reflects paneth cell differentiation and function
Lab Invest; 82: 12, 1647-59
Show abstract. It has been suggested that the behavior and function of Paneth cells in metaplasia are different from those found in normal intestinal mucosa. In this study, we investigated whether calnexin, a protein involved in secretory pathways, might be associated with differentiation and function of Paneth cells in normal small intestine, in complete intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, and in Paneth cell-rich adenomas. Differentiation and function of Paneth cells was monitored by Ki67, lysozyme, and morphologic features. Using a newly established monoclonal antibody, we found that calnexin is regularly synthesized by Paneth cells of normal small intestine. In these cells, the staining intensity of calnexin was inversely correlated with their content of secretory granules (lysozyme). In contrast, Paneth cells of intestinal metaplasia and Paneth cell-rich adenomas showed a reduced immunostaining of both calnexin and lysozyme. Moreover, these Paneth cells synthesized the proliferation marker Ki67, a phenomenon that was never observed in Paneth cells of normal small intestine. In vitro experiments using CaCo2 cells showed that the expression of calnexin is not directly affected by the induction of mitosis. In conclusion, calnexin probably reflects the status of Paneth cell differentiation and function. The results do not necessarily indicate that calnexin has a function in Paneth cell proliferation.
N. Gassler, C. Rohr, A. Schneider, J. Kartenbeck, A. Bach, N. Obermuller, H. F. Otto and F. Autschbach (2001)
Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with changes of enterocytic junctions
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 281: 1, G216-28
Show abstract. Changes of the intestinal mucosal barrier are considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our experiments were designed to identify dysregulation of epithelial junctional molecules in the IBD intestinum and to address whether altered expression of these molecules is a primary event in IBD or a phenomenon secondary to the inflammatory process. Noninflamed and inactively and actively inflamed mucosal tissues from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease as well as tissues from control subjects were analyzed for the expression of junctional molecules by different methods. Marked downregulation of junctional proteins and their respective mRNAs was observed in actively inflamed IBD tissues. In IBD tissues with inactive inflammation, only a few junctional molecules such as E-cadherin and alpha-catenin were affected, whereas expression of desmosomal or tight junction-associated proteins appeared almost unchanged. In noninflamed IBD tissues, junctional protein expression was not different from that seen in normal control subjects. In IBD, downregulation of junctional molecule expression is apparently associated with the inflammatory process and does not likely represent a primary phenomenon.
A. M. Brambrink, A. Schneider, H. Noga, A. Astheimer, B. Gotz, I. Korner, A. Heimann, M. Welschof and O. Kempski (2000)
Tolerance-Inducing dose of 3-nitropropionic acid modulates bcl-2 and bax balance in the rat brain: a potential mechanism of chemical preconditioning
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 20: 10, 1425-36
Show abstract. Many studies have reported ischemia protection using various preconditioning techniques, including single dose 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a mitochondrial toxin. However, the cellular signal transduction cascades resulting in ischemic tolerance and the mechanisms involved in neuronal survival in the tolerant state still remain unclear. The current study investigated the mRNA and protein expression of the antiapoptotic bcl-2 and the proapoptotic bax. two antagonistic members of the bcl-2 gene family, in response to a single dose of 3-NPA, to global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. and to the combination of both 3-NPA-pretreatment and subsequent global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Brain homogenates of adult Wistar rats (n = 25) were analyzed for bcl-2 and bax mRNA expression using a new highly sensitive and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that allows real-time fluorescence measurements of the PCR product (LightCycler; Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Animals for mRNA analysis received 3-NPA (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal; "chemical preconditioning") or vehicle (normal saline), and were either observed for 24 plus 3 hours or were subjected to 15 minutes of global cerebral ischemia 24 hours after the pretreatment and observed for 3 hours of reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry was applied to serial brain sections of additional rats (n = 68) to determine amount and localization of the respective Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in various brain areas. One set of animals was injected with 3-NPA and observed for 3, 12, 24, and 96 hours; a second set was exposed to 15 minutes global cerebral ischemia, 3, 12, and 24 hours reperfusion; and a third set was pretreated with 3-NPA or saline 24 hours before the ischemic brain insult and observed for 96 hours of reperfusion. The authors found single dose 3-NPA treatment to be associated with an elevated bcl-2:bax ratio (increased bcl-2 expression, decreased bax expression), both on the transcriptional (mRNA) and the translational (protein) level. The differential influence of 3-NPA was maintained during early recovery from global cerebral ischemia (3 hours), when 3-NPA pretreated animals showed higher bcl-2 and lower bax mRNA levels compared with rats with saline treatment. Respective changes in protein expression were localized predominately in neurons vulnerable to ischemic damage. Compared with baseline, Bcl-2 protein was significantly higher in surviving neurons at 96 hours after the insult, whereas Bax protein remained unchanged. However, at this late time of postischemic recovery (96 hours), the protein expression pattern of surviving neurons was not different between animals with and without 3-NPA pretreatment. To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first report on the differential expression of pro- and antiapoptotic genes after a single, nonlethal dose of 3-NPA. The current results suggest alterations in the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins as a potential explanation for the reported protection provided by chemical preconditioning using 3-NPA in rats.
M. Schwaninger, S. Sallmann, N. Petersen, A. Schneider, S. Prinz, T. A. Libermann and M. Spranger (1999)
Bradykinin induces interleukin-6 expression in astrocytes through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB
J Neurochem; 73: 4, 1461-6
Show abstract. Bradykinin, a mediator of inflammation, is produced in the brain during trauma and stroke. It is thought to open the blood-brain barrier, although the mechanism is unclear. We have investigated, therefore, the effect of bradykinin on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a putative modulator of the blood-brain barrier, in astrocytes. IL-6 gene transcription was evaluated by transient transfection of the human IL-6 promoter linked to the luciferase gene. In murine astrocytes, bradykinin stimulated IL-6 secretion and gene transcription. The effect of bradykinin was blocked by KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, and by bisindolylmaleimide I, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, suggesting the involvement of these protein kinases. Mutations in the multiple response element and the binding site for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but not in other known elements of the IL-6 promoter, interfered with induction of IL-6 transcription. The involvement of NF-kappaB was supported further by the finding that overexpression of nmIkappaB alpha, a stable inhibitor of NF-kappaB, inhibited the induction of IL-6 by bradykinin. Bradykinin activated NF-kappaB in primary astrocytes as shown by increased DNA binding of NF-kappaB. These data demonstrate that bradykinin stimulates IL-6 expression through activation of NF-kappaB, which may explain several inflammatory effects of bradykinin.
A. Schneider, A. Martin-Villalba, F. Weih, J. Vogel, T. Wirth and M. Schwaninger (1999)
NF-kappaB is activated and promotes cell death in focal cerebral ischemia
Nat Med; 5: 5, 554-9
Show abstract. The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a regulator of cell death or survival. To investigate the role of NF-kappaB in neuronal cell death, we studied its activation in a rodent model of stroke. In the ischemic hemisphere, NF-kappaB was activated, as determined by increased expression of an NF-kappaB-driven reporter transgene, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in neurons and enhanced DNA binding of NF-kappaB subunits RelA and p50. In p50 knockout mice, ischemic damage was significantly reduced. This indicates a cell death-promoting role of NF-kappaB in focal ischemia. NF-kappaB may provide a new pharmacological target in neurologic disease.
R. Kuner, G. Kohr, S. Grunewald, G. Eisenhardt, A. Bach and H. C. Kornau (1999)
Role of heteromer formation in GABAB receptor function
Science; 283: 5398, 74-7
Show abstract. Recently, GBR1, a seven-transmembrane domain protein with high affinity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor antagonists, was identified. Here, a GBR1-related protein, GBR2, was shown to be coexpressed with GBR1 in many brain regions and to interact with it through a short domain in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Heterologously expressed GBR2 mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase; however, inwardly rectifying potassium channels were activated by GABAB receptor agonists only upon coexpression with GBR1 and GBR2. Thus, the interaction of these receptors appears to be crucial for important physiological effects of GABA and provides a mechanism in receptor signaling pathways that involve a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein.